Just like the ‘composite’ camel in this old Persian painting (~1500 A.D), phenotype is composed of many layers. The outer skeleton of the animal gives a basic shape and structure, similar to the genotype. The external environment in the form of the man can guide its movement and change direction. In addition to genes and environment, non-genetic variation contributes to cellular phenotype and behaviour. At a molecular level, altered RNA and proteins underlie these changes, analogous to the many small animals within the camel. 

We are interested in understanding the role of non-genetic variation in influencing adaptation and evolution. Specifically, we are interested in the following:

  1. The mechanistic and evolutionary implications of bacterial mistranslation on cellular behaviour
  1. Genetic and non-genetic drivers of AMR
  1. Understanding AMR evolution and transmission via environmental surveillance

Image credit: Open access image from the Metropolitan Museum of Art